FTM Price: $0.70 (+5.49%)
Gas: 24 GWei

Contract Diff Checker

Contract Name:
XENCrypto

Contract Source Code:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

import "./Math.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/interfaces/IERC165.sol";
import "abdk-libraries-solidity/ABDKMath64x64.sol";
import "./interfaces/IStakingToken.sol";
import "./interfaces/IRankedMintingToken.sol";
import "./interfaces/IBurnableToken.sol";
import "./interfaces/IBurnRedeemable.sol";

contract XENCrypto is Context, IRankedMintingToken, IStakingToken, IBurnableToken, ERC20("XEN Crypto", "fmXEN") {
    using Math for uint256;
    using ABDKMath64x64 for int128;
    using ABDKMath64x64 for uint256;

    // INTERNAL TYPE TO DESCRIBE A XEN MINT INFO
    struct MintInfo {
        address user;
        uint256 term;
        uint256 maturityTs;
        uint256 rank;
        uint256 amplifier;
        uint256 eaaRate;
    }

    // INTERNAL TYPE TO DESCRIBE A XEN STAKE
    struct StakeInfo {
        uint256 term;
        uint256 maturityTs;
        uint256 amount;
        uint256 apy;
    }

    // PUBLIC CONSTANTS

    uint256 public constant SECONDS_IN_DAY = 3_600 * 24;
    uint256 public constant DAYS_IN_YEAR = 365;

    uint256 public constant GENESIS_RANK = 1;

    uint256 public constant MIN_TERM = 1 * SECONDS_IN_DAY - 1;
    uint256 public constant MAX_TERM_START = 100 * SECONDS_IN_DAY;
    uint256 public constant MAX_TERM_END = 1_000 * SECONDS_IN_DAY;
    uint256 public constant TERM_AMPLIFIER = 15;
    uint256 public constant TERM_AMPLIFIER_THRESHOLD = 5_000;
    uint256 public constant REWARD_AMPLIFIER_START = 3_000;
    uint256 public constant REWARD_AMPLIFIER_END = 1;
    uint256 public constant EAA_PM_START = 100;
    uint256 public constant EAA_PM_STEP = 1;
    uint256 public constant EAA_RANK_STEP = 100_000;
    uint256 public constant WITHDRAWAL_WINDOW_DAYS = 7;
    uint256 public constant MAX_PENALTY_PCT = 99;

    uint256 public constant XEN_MIN_STAKE = 0;

    uint256 public constant XEN_MIN_BURN = 0;

    uint256 public constant XEN_APY_START = 20;
    uint256 public constant XEN_APY_DAYS_STEP = 90;
    uint256 public constant XEN_APY_END = 2;

    string public constant AUTHORS = "@MrJackLevin @lbelyaev faircrypto.org";

    // PUBLIC STATE, READABLE VIA NAMESAKE GETTERS

    uint256 public immutable genesisTs;
    uint256 public globalRank = GENESIS_RANK;
    uint256 public activeMinters;
    uint256 public activeStakes;
    uint256 public totalXenStaked;
    // user address => XEN mint info
    mapping(address => MintInfo) public userMints;
    // user address => XEN stake info
    mapping(address => StakeInfo) public userStakes;
    // user address => XEN burn amount
    mapping(address => uint256) public userBurns;

    // CONSTRUCTOR
    constructor() {
        genesisTs = block.timestamp;
    }

    // PRIVATE METHODS

    /**
     * @dev calculates current MaxTerm based on Global Rank
     *      (if Global Rank crosses over TERM_AMPLIFIER_THRESHOLD)
     */
    function _calculateMaxTerm() private view returns (uint256) {
        if (globalRank > TERM_AMPLIFIER_THRESHOLD) {
            uint256 delta = globalRank.fromUInt().log_2().mul(TERM_AMPLIFIER.fromUInt()).toUInt();
            uint256 newMax = MAX_TERM_START + delta * SECONDS_IN_DAY;
            return Math.min(newMax, MAX_TERM_END);
        }
        return MAX_TERM_START;
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates Withdrawal Penalty depending on lateness
     */
    function _penalty(uint256 secsLate) private pure returns (uint256) {
        // =MIN(2^(daysLate+3)/window-1,99)
        uint256 daysLate = secsLate / SECONDS_IN_DAY;
        if (daysLate > WITHDRAWAL_WINDOW_DAYS - 1) return MAX_PENALTY_PCT;
        uint256 penalty = (uint256(1) << (daysLate + 3)) / WITHDRAWAL_WINDOW_DAYS - 1;
        return Math.min(penalty, MAX_PENALTY_PCT);
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates net Mint Reward (adjusted for Penalty)
     */
    function _calculateMintReward(
        uint256 cRank,
        uint256 term,
        uint256 maturityTs,
        uint256 amplifier,
        uint256 eeaRate
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 secsLate = block.timestamp - maturityTs;
        uint256 penalty = _penalty(secsLate);
        uint256 rankDelta = Math.max(globalRank - cRank, 2);
        uint256 EAA = (1_000 + eeaRate);
        uint256 reward = getGrossReward(rankDelta, amplifier, term, EAA);
        return (reward * (100 - penalty)) / 100;
    }

    /**
     * @dev cleans up User Mint storage (gets some Gas credit;))
     */
    function _cleanUpUserMint() private {
        delete userMints[_msgSender()];
        activeMinters--;
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates XEN Stake Reward
     */
    function _calculateStakeReward(
        uint256 amount,
        uint256 term,
        uint256 maturityTs,
        uint256 apy
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        if (block.timestamp > maturityTs) {
            uint256 rate = (apy * term * 1_000_000) / DAYS_IN_YEAR;
            return (amount * rate) / 100_000_000;
        }
        return 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates Reward Amplifier
     */
    function _calculateRewardAmplifier() private view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 amplifierDecrease = (block.timestamp - genesisTs) / SECONDS_IN_DAY;
        if (amplifierDecrease < REWARD_AMPLIFIER_START) {
            return Math.max(REWARD_AMPLIFIER_START - amplifierDecrease, REWARD_AMPLIFIER_END);
        } else {
            return REWARD_AMPLIFIER_END;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates Early Adopter Amplifier Rate (in 1/000ths)
     *      actual EAA is (1_000 + EAAR) / 1_000
     */
    function _calculateEAARate() private view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 decrease = (EAA_PM_STEP * globalRank) / EAA_RANK_STEP;
        if (decrease > EAA_PM_START) return 0;
        return EAA_PM_START - decrease;
    }

    /**
     * @dev calculates APY (in %)
     */
    function _calculateAPY() private view returns (uint256) {
        uint256 decrease = (block.timestamp - genesisTs) / (SECONDS_IN_DAY * XEN_APY_DAYS_STEP);
        if (XEN_APY_START - XEN_APY_END < decrease) return XEN_APY_END;
        return XEN_APY_START - decrease;
    }

    /**
     * @dev creates User Stake
     */
    function _createStake(uint256 amount, uint256 term) private {
        userStakes[_msgSender()] = StakeInfo({
            term: term,
            maturityTs: block.timestamp + term * SECONDS_IN_DAY,
            amount: amount,
            apy: _calculateAPY()
        });
        activeStakes++;
        totalXenStaked += amount;
    }

    // PUBLIC CONVENIENCE GETTERS

    /**
     * @dev calculates gross Mint Reward
     */
    function getGrossReward(
        uint256 rankDelta,
        uint256 amplifier,
        uint256 term,
        uint256 eaa
    ) public pure returns (uint256) {
        int128 log128 = rankDelta.fromUInt().log_2();
        int128 reward128 = log128.mul(amplifier.fromUInt()).mul(term.fromUInt()).mul(eaa.fromUInt());
        return reward128.div(uint256(1_000).fromUInt()).toUInt();
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns User Mint object associated with User account address
     */
    function getUserMint() external view returns (MintInfo memory) {
        return userMints[_msgSender()];
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns XEN Stake object associated with User account address
     */
    function getUserStake() external view returns (StakeInfo memory) {
        return userStakes[_msgSender()];
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns current AMP
     */
    function getCurrentAMP() external view returns (uint256) {
        return _calculateRewardAmplifier();
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns current EAA Rate
     */
    function getCurrentEAAR() external view returns (uint256) {
        return _calculateEAARate();
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns current APY
     */
    function getCurrentAPY() external view returns (uint256) {
        return _calculateAPY();
    }

    /**
     * @dev returns current MaxTerm
     */
    function getCurrentMaxTerm() external view returns (uint256) {
        return _calculateMaxTerm();
    }

    // PUBLIC STATE-CHANGING METHODS

    /**
     * @dev accepts User cRank claim provided all checks pass (incl. no current claim exists)
     */
    function claimRank(uint256 term) external {
        uint256 termSec = term * SECONDS_IN_DAY;
        require(termSec > MIN_TERM, "CRank: Term less than min");
        require(termSec < _calculateMaxTerm() + 1, "CRank: Term more than current max term");
        require(userMints[_msgSender()].rank == 0, "CRank: Mint already in progress");

        // create and store new MintInfo
        MintInfo memory mintInfo = MintInfo({
            user: _msgSender(),
            term: term,
            maturityTs: block.timestamp + termSec,
            rank: globalRank,
            amplifier: _calculateRewardAmplifier(),
            eaaRate: _calculateEAARate()
        });
        userMints[_msgSender()] = mintInfo;
        activeMinters++;
        emit RankClaimed(_msgSender(), term, globalRank++);
    }

    /**
     * @dev ends minting upon maturity (and within permitted Withdrawal Time Window), gets minted XEN
     */
    function claimMintReward() external {
        MintInfo memory mintInfo = userMints[_msgSender()];
        require(mintInfo.rank > 0, "CRank: No mint exists");
        require(block.timestamp > mintInfo.maturityTs, "CRank: Mint maturity not reached");

        // calculate reward and mint tokens
        uint256 rewardAmount = _calculateMintReward(
            mintInfo.rank,
            mintInfo.term,
            mintInfo.maturityTs,
            mintInfo.amplifier,
            mintInfo.eaaRate
        ) * 1 ether;
        _mint(_msgSender(), rewardAmount);

        _cleanUpUserMint();
        emit MintClaimed(_msgSender(), rewardAmount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev  ends minting upon maturity (and within permitted Withdrawal time Window)
     *       mints XEN coins and splits them between User and designated other address
     */
    function claimMintRewardAndShare(address other, uint256 pct) external {
        MintInfo memory mintInfo = userMints[_msgSender()];
        require(other != address(0), "CRank: Cannot share with zero address");
        require(pct > 0, "CRank: Cannot share zero percent");
        require(pct < 101, "CRank: Cannot share 100+ percent");
        require(mintInfo.rank > 0, "CRank: No mint exists");
        require(block.timestamp > mintInfo.maturityTs, "CRank: Mint maturity not reached");

        // calculate reward
        uint256 rewardAmount = _calculateMintReward(
            mintInfo.rank,
            mintInfo.term,
            mintInfo.maturityTs,
            mintInfo.amplifier,
            mintInfo.eaaRate
        ) * 1 ether;
        uint256 sharedReward = (rewardAmount * pct) / 100;
        uint256 ownReward = rewardAmount - sharedReward;

        // mint reward tokens
        _mint(_msgSender(), ownReward);
        _mint(other, sharedReward);

        _cleanUpUserMint();
        emit MintClaimed(_msgSender(), rewardAmount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev  ends minting upon maturity (and within permitted Withdrawal time Window)
     *       mints XEN coins and stakes 'pct' of it for 'term'
     */
    function claimMintRewardAndStake(uint256 pct, uint256 term) external {
        MintInfo memory mintInfo = userMints[_msgSender()];
        // require(pct > 0, "CRank: Cannot share zero percent");
        require(pct < 101, "CRank: Cannot share >100 percent");
        require(mintInfo.rank > 0, "CRank: No mint exists");
        require(block.timestamp > mintInfo.maturityTs, "CRank: Mint maturity not reached");

        // calculate reward
        uint256 rewardAmount = _calculateMintReward(
            mintInfo.rank,
            mintInfo.term,
            mintInfo.maturityTs,
            mintInfo.amplifier,
            mintInfo.eaaRate
        ) * 1 ether;
        uint256 stakedReward = (rewardAmount * pct) / 100;
        uint256 ownReward = rewardAmount - stakedReward;

        // mint reward tokens part
        _mint(_msgSender(), ownReward);
        _cleanUpUserMint();
        emit MintClaimed(_msgSender(), rewardAmount);

        // nothing to burn since we haven't minted this part yet
        // stake extra tokens part
        require(stakedReward > XEN_MIN_STAKE, "XEN: Below min stake");
        require(term * SECONDS_IN_DAY > MIN_TERM, "XEN: Below min stake term");
        require(term * SECONDS_IN_DAY < MAX_TERM_END + 1, "XEN: Above max stake term");
        require(userStakes[_msgSender()].amount == 0, "XEN: stake exists");

        _createStake(stakedReward, term);
        emit Staked(_msgSender(), stakedReward, term);
    }

    /**
     * @dev initiates XEN Stake in amount for a term (days)
     */
    function stake(uint256 amount, uint256 term) external {
        require(balanceOf(_msgSender()) >= amount, "XEN: not enough balance");
        require(amount > XEN_MIN_STAKE, "XEN: Below min stake");
        require(term * SECONDS_IN_DAY > MIN_TERM, "XEN: Below min stake term");
        require(term * SECONDS_IN_DAY < MAX_TERM_END + 1, "XEN: Above max stake term");
        require(userStakes[_msgSender()].amount == 0, "XEN: stake exists");

        // burn staked XEN
        _burn(_msgSender(), amount);
        // create XEN Stake
        _createStake(amount, term);
        emit Staked(_msgSender(), amount, term);
    }

    /**
     * @dev ends XEN Stake and gets reward if the Stake is mature
     */
    function withdraw() external {
        StakeInfo memory userStake = userStakes[_msgSender()];
        require(userStake.amount > 0, "XEN: no stake exists");

        uint256 xenReward = _calculateStakeReward(
            userStake.amount,
            userStake.term,
            userStake.maturityTs,
            userStake.apy
        );
        activeStakes--;
        totalXenStaked -= userStake.amount;

        // mint staked XEN (+ reward)
        _mint(_msgSender(), userStake.amount + xenReward);
        emit Withdrawn(_msgSender(), userStake.amount, xenReward);
        delete userStakes[_msgSender()];
    }

    /**
     * @dev burns XEN tokens and creates Proof-Of-Burn record to be used by connected DeFi services
     */
    function burn(address user, uint256 amount) public {
        require(amount > XEN_MIN_BURN, "Burn: Below min limit");
        require(
            IERC165(_msgSender()).supportsInterface(type(IBurnRedeemable).interfaceId),
            "Burn: not a supported contract"
        );

        _spendAllowance(user, _msgSender(), amount);
        _burn(user, amount);
        userBurns[user] += amount;
        IBurnRedeemable(_msgSender()).onTokenBurned(user, amount);
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

interface IStakingToken {
    event Staked(address indexed user, uint256 amount, uint256 term);

    event Withdrawn(address indexed user, uint256 amount, uint256 reward);

    function stake(uint256 amount, uint256 term) external;

    function withdraw() external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

interface IRankedMintingToken {
    event RankClaimed(address indexed user, uint256 term, uint256 rank);

    event MintClaimed(address indexed user, uint256 rewardAmount);

    function claimRank(uint256 term) external;

    function claimMintReward() external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

interface IBurnableToken {
    function burn(address user, uint256 amount) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

interface IBurnRedeemable {
    event Redeemed(
        address indexed user,
        address indexed xenContract,
        address indexed tokenContract,
        uint256 xenAmount,
        uint256 tokenAmount
    );

    function onTokenBurned(address user, uint256 amount) external;
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.10;

import "abdk-libraries-solidity/ABDKMath64x64.sol";

library Math {
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) external pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a > b) return b;
        return a;
    }

    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) external pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a > b) return a;
        return b;
    }

    function logX64(uint256 x) external pure returns (int128) {
        return ABDKMath64x64.log_2(ABDKMath64x64.fromUInt(x));
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: BSD-4-Clause
/*
 * ABDK Math 64.64 Smart Contract Library.  Copyright © 2019 by ABDK Consulting.
 * Author: Mikhail Vladimirov <[email protected]>
 */
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * Smart contract library of mathematical functions operating with signed
 * 64.64-bit fixed point numbers.  Signed 64.64-bit fixed point number is
 * basically a simple fraction whose numerator is signed 128-bit integer and
 * denominator is 2^64.  As long as denominator is always the same, there is no
 * need to store it, thus in Solidity signed 64.64-bit fixed point numbers are
 * represented by int128 type holding only the numerator.
 */
library ABDKMath64x64 {
  /*
   * Minimum value signed 64.64-bit fixed point number may have. 
   */
  int128 private constant MIN_64x64 = -0x80000000000000000000000000000000;

  /*
   * Maximum value signed 64.64-bit fixed point number may have. 
   */
  int128 private constant MAX_64x64 = 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF;

  /**
   * Convert signed 256-bit integer number into signed 64.64-bit fixed point
   * number.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 256-bit integer number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function fromInt (int256 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x >= -0x8000000000000000 && x <= 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
      return int128 (x << 64);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Convert signed 64.64 fixed point number into signed 64-bit integer number
   * rounding down.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64-bit integer number
   */
  function toInt (int128 x) internal pure returns (int64) {
    unchecked {
      return int64 (x >> 64);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Convert unsigned 256-bit integer number into signed 64.64-bit fixed point
   * number.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function fromUInt (uint256 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x <= 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
      return int128 (int256 (x << 64));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Convert signed 64.64 fixed point number into unsigned 64-bit integer
   * number rounding down.  Revert on underflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return unsigned 64-bit integer number
   */
  function toUInt (int128 x) internal pure returns (uint64) {
    unchecked {
      require (x >= 0);
      return uint64 (uint128 (x >> 64));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Convert signed 128.128 fixed point number into signed 64.64-bit fixed point
   * number rounding down.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 128.128-bin fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function from128x128 (int256 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      int256 result = x >> 64;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Convert signed 64.64 fixed point number into signed 128.128 fixed point
   * number.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 128.128 fixed point number
   */
  function to128x128 (int128 x) internal pure returns (int256) {
    unchecked {
      return int256 (x) << 64;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x + y.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function add (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      int256 result = int256(x) + y;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x - y.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function sub (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      int256 result = int256(x) - y;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x * y rounding down.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function mul (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      int256 result = int256(x) * y >> 64;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x * y rounding towards zero, where x is signed 64.64 fixed point
   * number and y is signed 256-bit integer number.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64 fixed point number
   * @param y signed 256-bit integer number
   * @return signed 256-bit integer number
   */
  function muli (int128 x, int256 y) internal pure returns (int256) {
    unchecked {
      if (x == MIN_64x64) {
        require (y >= -0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF &&
          y <= 0x1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000);
        return -y << 63;
      } else {
        bool negativeResult = false;
        if (x < 0) {
          x = -x;
          negativeResult = true;
        }
        if (y < 0) {
          y = -y; // We rely on overflow behavior here
          negativeResult = !negativeResult;
        }
        uint256 absoluteResult = mulu (x, uint256 (y));
        if (negativeResult) {
          require (absoluteResult <=
            0x8000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000);
          return -int256 (absoluteResult); // We rely on overflow behavior here
        } else {
          require (absoluteResult <=
            0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
          return int256 (absoluteResult);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x * y rounding down, where x is signed 64.64 fixed point number
   * and y is unsigned 256-bit integer number.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64 fixed point number
   * @param y unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @return unsigned 256-bit integer number
   */
  function mulu (int128 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256) {
    unchecked {
      if (y == 0) return 0;

      require (x >= 0);

      uint256 lo = (uint256 (int256 (x)) * (y & 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)) >> 64;
      uint256 hi = uint256 (int256 (x)) * (y >> 128);

      require (hi <= 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
      hi <<= 64;

      require (hi <=
        0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF - lo);
      return hi + lo;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x / y rounding towards zero.  Revert on overflow or when y is
   * zero.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function div (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (y != 0);
      int256 result = (int256 (x) << 64) / y;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x / y rounding towards zero, where x and y are signed 256-bit
   * integer numbers.  Revert on overflow or when y is zero.
   *
   * @param x signed 256-bit integer number
   * @param y signed 256-bit integer number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function divi (int256 x, int256 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (y != 0);

      bool negativeResult = false;
      if (x < 0) {
        x = -x; // We rely on overflow behavior here
        negativeResult = true;
      }
      if (y < 0) {
        y = -y; // We rely on overflow behavior here
        negativeResult = !negativeResult;
      }
      uint128 absoluteResult = divuu (uint256 (x), uint256 (y));
      if (negativeResult) {
        require (absoluteResult <= 0x80000000000000000000000000000000);
        return -int128 (absoluteResult); // We rely on overflow behavior here
      } else {
        require (absoluteResult <= 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
        return int128 (absoluteResult); // We rely on overflow behavior here
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x / y rounding towards zero, where x and y are unsigned 256-bit
   * integer numbers.  Revert on overflow or when y is zero.
   *
   * @param x unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @param y unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function divu (uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (y != 0);
      uint128 result = divuu (x, y);
      require (result <= uint128 (MAX_64x64));
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate -x.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function neg (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x != MIN_64x64);
      return -x;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate |x|.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function abs (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x != MIN_64x64);
      return x < 0 ? -x : x;
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate 1 / x rounding towards zero.  Revert on overflow or when x is
   * zero.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function inv (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x != 0);
      int256 result = int256 (0x100000000000000000000000000000000) / x;
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate arithmetics average of x and y, i.e. (x + y) / 2 rounding down.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function avg (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      return int128 ((int256 (x) + int256 (y)) >> 1);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate geometric average of x and y, i.e. sqrt (x * y) rounding down.
   * Revert on overflow or in case x * y is negative.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function gavg (int128 x, int128 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      int256 m = int256 (x) * int256 (y);
      require (m >= 0);
      require (m <
          0x4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000);
      return int128 (sqrtu (uint256 (m)));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x^y assuming 0^0 is 1, where x is signed 64.64 fixed point number
   * and y is unsigned 256-bit integer number.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @param y uint256 value
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function pow (int128 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      bool negative = x < 0 && y & 1 == 1;

      uint256 absX = uint128 (x < 0 ? -x : x);
      uint256 absResult;
      absResult = 0x100000000000000000000000000000000;

      if (absX <= 0x10000000000000000) {
        absX <<= 63;
        while (y != 0) {
          if (y & 0x1 != 0) {
            absResult = absResult * absX >> 127;
          }
          absX = absX * absX >> 127;

          if (y & 0x2 != 0) {
            absResult = absResult * absX >> 127;
          }
          absX = absX * absX >> 127;

          if (y & 0x4 != 0) {
            absResult = absResult * absX >> 127;
          }
          absX = absX * absX >> 127;

          if (y & 0x8 != 0) {
            absResult = absResult * absX >> 127;
          }
          absX = absX * absX >> 127;

          y >>= 4;
        }

        absResult >>= 64;
      } else {
        uint256 absXShift = 63;
        if (absX < 0x1000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 32; absXShift -= 32; }
        if (absX < 0x10000000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 16; absXShift -= 16; }
        if (absX < 0x1000000000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 8; absXShift -= 8; }
        if (absX < 0x10000000000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 4; absXShift -= 4; }
        if (absX < 0x40000000000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 2; absXShift -= 2; }
        if (absX < 0x80000000000000000000000000000000) { absX <<= 1; absXShift -= 1; }

        uint256 resultShift = 0;
        while (y != 0) {
          require (absXShift < 64);

          if (y & 0x1 != 0) {
            absResult = absResult * absX >> 127;
            resultShift += absXShift;
            if (absResult > 0x100000000000000000000000000000000) {
              absResult >>= 1;
              resultShift += 1;
            }
          }
          absX = absX * absX >> 127;
          absXShift <<= 1;
          if (absX >= 0x100000000000000000000000000000000) {
              absX >>= 1;
              absXShift += 1;
          }

          y >>= 1;
        }

        require (resultShift < 64);
        absResult >>= 64 - resultShift;
      }
      int256 result = negative ? -int256 (absResult) : int256 (absResult);
      require (result >= MIN_64x64 && result <= MAX_64x64);
      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate sqrt (x) rounding down.  Revert if x < 0.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function sqrt (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x >= 0);
      return int128 (sqrtu (uint256 (int256 (x)) << 64));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate binary logarithm of x.  Revert if x <= 0.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function log_2 (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x > 0);

      int256 msb = 0;
      int256 xc = x;
      if (xc >= 0x10000000000000000) { xc >>= 64; msb += 64; }
      if (xc >= 0x100000000) { xc >>= 32; msb += 32; }
      if (xc >= 0x10000) { xc >>= 16; msb += 16; }
      if (xc >= 0x100) { xc >>= 8; msb += 8; }
      if (xc >= 0x10) { xc >>= 4; msb += 4; }
      if (xc >= 0x4) { xc >>= 2; msb += 2; }
      if (xc >= 0x2) msb += 1;  // No need to shift xc anymore

      int256 result = msb - 64 << 64;
      uint256 ux = uint256 (int256 (x)) << uint256 (127 - msb);
      for (int256 bit = 0x8000000000000000; bit > 0; bit >>= 1) {
        ux *= ux;
        uint256 b = ux >> 255;
        ux >>= 127 + b;
        result += bit * int256 (b);
      }

      return int128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate natural logarithm of x.  Revert if x <= 0.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function ln (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x > 0);

      return int128 (int256 (
          uint256 (int256 (log_2 (x))) * 0xB17217F7D1CF79ABC9E3B39803F2F6AF >> 128));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate binary exponent of x.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function exp_2 (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x < 0x400000000000000000); // Overflow

      if (x < -0x400000000000000000) return 0; // Underflow

      uint256 result = 0x80000000000000000000000000000000;

      if (x & 0x8000000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x16A09E667F3BCC908B2FB1366EA957D3E >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4000000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1306FE0A31B7152DE8D5A46305C85EDEC >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2000000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1172B83C7D517ADCDF7C8C50EB14A791F >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1000000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10B5586CF9890F6298B92B71842A98363 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x800000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1059B0D31585743AE7C548EB68CA417FD >> 128;
      if (x & 0x400000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x102C9A3E778060EE6F7CACA4F7A29BDE8 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x200000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10163DA9FB33356D84A66AE336DCDFA3F >> 128;
      if (x & 0x100000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100B1AFA5ABCBED6129AB13EC11DC9543 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x80000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10058C86DA1C09EA1FF19D294CF2F679B >> 128;
      if (x & 0x40000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1002C605E2E8CEC506D21BFC89A23A00F >> 128;
      if (x & 0x20000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100162F3904051FA128BCA9C55C31E5DF >> 128;
      if (x & 0x10000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000B175EFFDC76BA38E31671CA939725 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x8000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100058BA01FB9F96D6CACD4B180917C3D >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10002C5CC37DA9491D0985C348C68E7B3 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000162E525EE054754457D5995292026 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1000000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000B17255775C040618BF4A4ADE83FC >> 128;
      if (x & 0x800000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000058B91B5BC9AE2EED81E9B7D4CFAB >> 128;
      if (x & 0x400000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100002C5C89D5EC6CA4D7C8ACC017B7C9 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x200000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000162E43F4F831060E02D839A9D16D >> 128;
      if (x & 0x100000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000B1721BCFC99D9F890EA06911763 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x80000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000058B90CF1E6D97F9CA14DBCC1628 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x40000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000002C5C863B73F016468F6BAC5CA2B >> 128;
      if (x & 0x20000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000162E430E5A18F6119E3C02282A5 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x10000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000B1721835514B86E6D96EFD1BFE >> 128;
      if (x & 0x8000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000058B90C0B48C6BE5DF846C5B2EF >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000002C5C8601CC6B9E94213C72737A >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000162E42FFF037DF38AA2B219F06 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1000000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000B17217FBA9C739AA5819F44F9 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x800000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000058B90BFCDEE5ACD3C1CEDC823 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x400000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000002C5C85FE31F35A6A30DA1BE50 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x200000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000162E42FF0999CE3541B9FFFCF >> 128;
      if (x & 0x100000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000B17217F80F4EF5AADDA45554 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x80000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000058B90BFBF8479BD5A81B51AD >> 128;
      if (x & 0x40000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000002C5C85FDF84BD62AE30A74CC >> 128;
      if (x & 0x20000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000162E42FEFB2FED257559BDAA >> 128;
      if (x & 0x10000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000B17217F7D5A7716BBA4A9AE >> 128;
      if (x & 0x8000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000058B90BFBE9DDBAC5E109CCE >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000002C5C85FDF4B15DE6F17EB0D >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000162E42FEFA494F1478FDE05 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1000000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000B17217F7D20CF927C8E94C >> 128;
      if (x & 0x800000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000058B90BFBE8F71CB4E4B33D >> 128;
      if (x & 0x400000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000002C5C85FDF477B662B26945 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x200000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000162E42FEFA3AE53369388C >> 128;
      if (x & 0x100000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000B17217F7D1D351A389D40 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x80000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000058B90BFBE8E8B2D3D4EDE >> 128;
      if (x & 0x40000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000002C5C85FDF4741BEA6E77E >> 128;
      if (x & 0x20000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000162E42FEFA39FE95583C2 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x10000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000B17217F7D1CFB72B45E1 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x8000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000058B90BFBE8E7CC35C3F0 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000002C5C85FDF473E242EA38 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000162E42FEFA39F02B772C >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1000 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000000B17217F7D1CF7D83C1A >> 128;
      if (x & 0x800 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000058B90BFBE8E7BDCBE2E >> 128;
      if (x & 0x400 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000002C5C85FDF473DEA871F >> 128;
      if (x & 0x200 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000000162E42FEFA39EF44D91 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x100 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000000B17217F7D1CF79E949 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x80 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000000058B90BFBE8E7BCE544 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x40 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000002C5C85FDF473DE6ECA >> 128;
      if (x & 0x20 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000000162E42FEFA39EF366F >> 128;
      if (x & 0x10 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000000B17217F7D1CF79AFA >> 128;
      if (x & 0x8 > 0)
        result = result * 0x100000000000000058B90BFBE8E7BCD6D >> 128;
      if (x & 0x4 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000000002C5C85FDF473DE6B2 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x2 > 0)
        result = result * 0x1000000000000000162E42FEFA39EF358 >> 128;
      if (x & 0x1 > 0)
        result = result * 0x10000000000000000B17217F7D1CF79AB >> 128;

      result >>= uint256 (int256 (63 - (x >> 64)));
      require (result <= uint256 (int256 (MAX_64x64)));

      return int128 (int256 (result));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate natural exponent of x.  Revert on overflow.
   *
   * @param x signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   * @return signed 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function exp (int128 x) internal pure returns (int128) {
    unchecked {
      require (x < 0x400000000000000000); // Overflow

      if (x < -0x400000000000000000) return 0; // Underflow

      return exp_2 (
          int128 (int256 (x) * 0x171547652B82FE1777D0FFDA0D23A7D12 >> 128));
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate x / y rounding towards zero, where x and y are unsigned 256-bit
   * integer numbers.  Revert on overflow or when y is zero.
   *
   * @param x unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @param y unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @return unsigned 64.64-bit fixed point number
   */
  function divuu (uint256 x, uint256 y) private pure returns (uint128) {
    unchecked {
      require (y != 0);

      uint256 result;

      if (x <= 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
        result = (x << 64) / y;
      else {
        uint256 msb = 192;
        uint256 xc = x >> 192;
        if (xc >= 0x100000000) { xc >>= 32; msb += 32; }
        if (xc >= 0x10000) { xc >>= 16; msb += 16; }
        if (xc >= 0x100) { xc >>= 8; msb += 8; }
        if (xc >= 0x10) { xc >>= 4; msb += 4; }
        if (xc >= 0x4) { xc >>= 2; msb += 2; }
        if (xc >= 0x2) msb += 1;  // No need to shift xc anymore

        result = (x << 255 - msb) / ((y - 1 >> msb - 191) + 1);
        require (result <= 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);

        uint256 hi = result * (y >> 128);
        uint256 lo = result * (y & 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);

        uint256 xh = x >> 192;
        uint256 xl = x << 64;

        if (xl < lo) xh -= 1;
        xl -= lo; // We rely on overflow behavior here
        lo = hi << 128;
        if (xl < lo) xh -= 1;
        xl -= lo; // We rely on overflow behavior here

        assert (xh == hi >> 128);

        result += xl / y;
      }

      require (result <= 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
      return uint128 (result);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Calculate sqrt (x) rounding down, where x is unsigned 256-bit integer
   * number.
   *
   * @param x unsigned 256-bit integer number
   * @return unsigned 128-bit integer number
   */
  function sqrtu (uint256 x) private pure returns (uint128) {
    unchecked {
      if (x == 0) return 0;
      else {
        uint256 xx = x;
        uint256 r = 1;
        if (xx >= 0x100000000000000000000000000000000) { xx >>= 128; r <<= 64; }
        if (xx >= 0x10000000000000000) { xx >>= 64; r <<= 32; }
        if (xx >= 0x100000000) { xx >>= 32; r <<= 16; }
        if (xx >= 0x10000) { xx >>= 16; r <<= 8; }
        if (xx >= 0x100) { xx >>= 8; r <<= 4; }
        if (xx >= 0x10) { xx >>= 4; r <<= 2; }
        if (xx >= 0x8) { r <<= 1; }
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1;
        r = (r + x / r) >> 1; // Seven iterations should be enough
        uint256 r1 = x / r;
        return uint128 (r < r1 ? r : r1);
      }
    }
  }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/introspection/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (token/ERC20/extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../IERC20.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface for the optional metadata functions from the ERC20 standard.
 *
 * _Available since v4.1._
 */
interface IERC20Metadata is IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the decimals places of the token.
     */
    function decimals() external view returns (uint8);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.6.0) (token/ERC20/IERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `to`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address to, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `from` to `to` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) external returns (bool);
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v4.7.0) (token/ERC20/ERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "./IERC20.sol";
import "./extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol";
import "../../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC20} interface.
 *
 * This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
 * that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using {_mint}.
 * For a generic mechanism see {ERC20PresetMinterPauser}.
 *
 * TIP: For a detailed writeup see our guide
 * https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226[How
 * to implement supply mechanisms].
 *
 * We have followed general OpenZeppelin Contracts guidelines: functions revert
 * instead returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless
 * conventional and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20
 * applications.
 *
 * Additionally, an {Approval} event is emitted on calls to {transferFrom}.
 * This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
 * by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
 * these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
 *
 * Finally, the non-standard {decreaseAllowance} and {increaseAllowance}
 * functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
 * allowances. See {IERC20-approve}.
 */
contract ERC20 is Context, IERC20, IERC20Metadata {
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;

    mapping(address => mapping(address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    uint256 private _totalSupply;

    string private _name;
    string private _symbol;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the values for {name} and {symbol}.
     *
     * The default value of {decimals} is 18. To select a different value for
     * {decimals} you should overload it.
     *
     * All two of these values are immutable: they can only be set once during
     * construction.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
     * name.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
     * For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
     * be displayed to a user as `5.05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
     *
     * Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
     * Ether and Wei. This is the value {ERC20} uses, unless this function is
     * overridden;
     *
     * NOTE: This information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
     * no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
     * {IERC20-balanceOf} and {IERC20-transfer}.
     */
    function decimals() public view virtual override returns (uint8) {
        return 18;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-totalSupply}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _totalSupply;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transfer}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function transfer(address to, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        _transfer(owner, to, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-allowance}.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * NOTE: If `amount` is the maximum `uint256`, the allowance is not updated on
     * `transferFrom`. This is semantically equivalent to an infinite approval.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        _approve(owner, spender, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
     * required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of {ERC20}.
     *
     * NOTE: Does not update the allowance if the current allowance
     * is the maximum `uint256`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` and `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `from` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``from``'s tokens of at least
     * `amount`.
     */
    function transferFrom(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        address spender = _msgSender();
        _spendAllowance(from, spender, amount);
        _transfer(from, to, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        _approve(owner, spender, allowance(owner, spender) + addedValue);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
     * `subtractedValue`.
     */
    function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        uint256 currentAllowance = allowance(owner, spender);
        require(currentAllowance >= subtractedValue, "ERC20: decreased allowance below zero");
        unchecked {
            _approve(owner, spender, currentAllowance - subtractedValue);
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` of tokens from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {transfer}, and can be used to
     * e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `from` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function _transfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        require(from != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(to != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);

        uint256 fromBalance = _balances[from];
        require(fromBalance >= amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds balance");
        unchecked {
            _balances[from] = fromBalance - amount;
        }
        _balances[to] += amount;

        emit Transfer(from, to, amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);
    }

    /** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
     * the total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `from` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);

        _totalSupply += amount;
        _balances[account] += amount;
        emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
     * total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `to` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
     */
    function _burn(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);

        uint256 accountBalance = _balances[account];
        require(accountBalance >= amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds balance");
        unchecked {
            _balances[account] = accountBalance - amount;
        }
        _totalSupply -= amount;

        emit Transfer(account, address(0), amount);

        _afterTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner` s tokens.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
     * e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _approve(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
        require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");

        _allowances[owner][spender] = amount;
        emit Approval(owner, spender, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Updates `owner` s allowance for `spender` based on spent `amount`.
     *
     * Does not update the allowance amount in case of infinite allowance.
     * Revert if not enough allowance is available.
     *
     * Might emit an {Approval} event.
     */
    function _spendAllowance(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {
        uint256 currentAllowance = allowance(owner, spender);
        if (currentAllowance != type(uint256).max) {
            require(currentAllowance >= amount, "ERC20: insufficient allowance");
            unchecked {
                _approve(owner, spender, currentAllowance - amount);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any transfer of tokens. This includes
     * minting and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * will be transferred to `to`.
     * - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens will be minted for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {}

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called after any transfer of tokens. This includes
     * minting and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * has been transferred to `to`.
     * - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens have been minted for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens have been burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _afterTokenTransfer(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 amount
    ) internal virtual {}
}

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts v4.4.1 (interfaces/IERC165.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "../utils/introspection/IERC165.sol";

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